India-China relationship, Mr Jaishankar was quoted as saying by news agency ANI, has a "unique place" in global politics. "Two years ago, our leaders recognised that reality and reached a consensus in Astana that at a time of global uncertainty India-China relationship should be a factor of stability," he said.
Last week, after the government's move to end the special status of Jammu and Kashmir and bifurcate it into the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, China voiced its "serious concern".
Beijing asked India and Pakistan to exercise restraint, and said the two nations should avoid actions that "unilaterally" change the status quo and "exacerbate tensions".
China also expressed its opposition to India's move to create a separate Union Territory of Ladakh.
India said the decisions on Kashmir were "an internal matter concerning the territory of India".
"India does not comment on the internal affairs of other countries and similarly expects other countries to do likewise," the foreign ministry said.
Pointing to Mr Jaishankar's tenure as India's ambassador to China, Chinese Foreign Affairs Minister Wang Yi said for many years, he has made "positive and active contribution to China-India relations".
Mr Jaishankar, a seasoned diplomat who succeeded Sushma Swaraj in the second term of Prime Minister Narendra Modi's government, served as India's Ambassador to the US and before that, to China.